Amendment of the Constitution

Updated July 2007

Country Procedure
ANGOLA Two-thirds majority of the National Assembly; amendments must comply with fundamental principles of Constitution
BOTSWANA Two-thirds majority of National Assembly to amend Sections 30-44, 47-51, 56, 77-79, 85, 117-120, 127 and sections 57, 63-67, 86-89, 90(2)-(3), 91(2)-(5), 92 and 95-107
DRC Core provisions (republican state, universal suffrage, representative government, presidential terms, judicial independence, political pluralism) cannot be amended at all
Majority in National Assembly and Senate and ratification by referendum, or 3/5 majority of both houses sitting together.
LESOTHO Two-thirds majority or endorsement of the electorate in a national referendum for entrenched clauses (independence and sovereignty of Kingdom, supremacy of Constitution, bill of rights, office of the King, Council of State, Principle Chiefs, state land, independence of judiciary, Judicial Service Commission, citizenship, National Assembly, IEC, Senate, Ombudsman, Public Service Commission)
MADAGASCAR Amendments may be proposed by the President acting in the Council of Ministers or by Parliament with an absolute majority of both houses sitting seperately
Republican form of the State and its territorial integrity cannot be amended
Amendments require a three-fourths majority in the National Assembly and the Senate. The president and the Council of Ministers may decide whether the matter should be ratified by a referendum; if this is the case the approval of an absolute majority of voters is required
MALAWI Bulk Constitution requires referendum
Articles 14, 48-76, 78-102, 104-110, 112-113, 115-118, 120-194, 198-215 require two-thirds majority of the National Assembly
MAURITIUS Sections 1 (sovereign democratic State) and 57(2) (term of Parliament) require referendum with three-quarters of the electorate approving the measure and all votes of National Assembly
Votes of three-quarters of all members of the National Assembly required to amend Sections 28-31, 37-47, 56-58 other than 57(2), 64-65, 71-72, 108, 47, Chapters II, VII, VIII, IX and the First Schedule (These cover, among other things, fundamental rights, organs of state, electoral system)
Other articles require two-thirds of all members of National Assembly
MOZAMBIQUE Two-thirds majority of Assembly of the Republic
NAMIBIA Bill of rights (Chapter 3, Articles 5-25) cannot be repealed or amended
Other articles require two-thirds majority of National Assembly and National Council. Veto by National Council may be overridden through referendum
SEYCHELLES Two-thirds majority in the National Assembly and 60% approval in a national referendum required for Chapter 1 (the Republic), Chapter Three (the bill of rights), Article 91 (the entrenchment clause) and Articles 110-111 (dissolution of the Assembly)
Other articles require two-thirds majority in the National Assembly
SOUTH AFRICA Chapter 1 (Founding Provisions) requires three-quarters of National Assembly and six of nine delegations in Council of Provinces
Amendments affecting the Council of Provinces and Chapter 2 (Bill of Rights) require two-thirds of National Assembly and six of the nine delegations in the Council of Provinces
Other articles require two-thirds of Assembly
SWAZILAND Especially entrenched clauses (see Article 246(2) for list) three-quarters majority and the approval of a national referendum
Entrenched clauses (see Article 247(2) for list) two-thirds majority of a joint sitting of Parliament
Other articles require joint sitting of Parliament and/or a national referendum
TANZANIA Amendments affecting constitutional arrangements of Union with Zanzibar require two-thirds of the National Assembly and of Zanzibari House of Representatives
Other articles require two-thirds of all members of the National Assembly
ZAMBIA Two-thirds majority of the National Assembly and referendum for Part III (the bill of rights)
Other articles require two-thirds majority of the National Assembly
ZANZIBAR Two-thirds majority in both first and second readings
ZIMBABWE Two-thirds majority of the National Assembly and Senate; if Senate fails to pass the amendment within 180 days, National Assembly can, by resolution of two-thirds, submit amendment to President for signature