Links directory

 

Elections

Calendars

Psephos: Adam Carr's Election Archive http://psephos.adam-carr.net. Arranged by month; international elections calendar on the front page.
CNN "Election Watch", http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/election.watch. Arranged by country; exhaustive international list of elections with links to pages on each election.
IFES "2006 ElectionGuide", IN ElectionGuide.Org http://www.electionguide.org/calendar.php. Arranged by country; updated weekly; comprehensive international elections calendar.
Maximiliano Herrera Human Rights Links, "Electoral Calendar", http://www.angelfire.com/ma/maxcrc/elections.html. Arranged by month, exhaustive international elections calendar.
NDI "2010-2011 Elections Calendar", http://www.ndi.org/electionscalendar. Arranged by month, international elections calendar.
Wikipedia "Election calendar", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electoral_calendar. International elections calendar, arranged by month. Content of Electionworld.org are being transferred here.

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Civic and voter education

Civic and Voter Education http://aceproject.org/ace-en/topics/ve, ACE Electoral Knowledge Network. Addresses all aspects of creating a voter training programme from the establishment of a voter education mandate, through planning, developing and implementation to monitoring and evaluating.
Center for Civic Education http://www.civiced.org/ Promotes an enlightened and responsible citizenry committed to democratic principles and actively engaged in the practice of democracy. Includes teaching related material adaptable to needs of other countries.
Civic Education Strategies for Political Parties and Civic Groups http://www.ndi.org/node/13298, Dippell, M 2004. Focuses on a practical and interactive curriculum and making democratic issues concrete.
Civic Education and Local Government: A Literature Review http://ia201114.eu.archive.org/tna/20060605094311/http://www.odpm.gov.uk/embedded_object.asp?id=1137167 [PDF document], 2005, Cardiff University, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (UK). Covers theoretical and policy context, state support, education in secondary schools, empirical evidence and future prospects and key messages.
CIVNET http://www.civnet.org/, Civitas. An online resource and service for civic education practitioners. Helps establish teacher-training programs, creating and distributing civics lesson plans, syllabi, curricula, text books, and teaching materials, and enabling civic education practitioners to network and share information.
Role of Civic Education http://www.mdk12.org/instruction/curriculum/social_studies/civic_ed.html, Branson, MS, Communitarian Network, 1998. Defines civic education, looks at the essential components, how and where it takes place, improving civic education and policy recommendations.
Role of Electoral Management Bodies in supporting voter education: Lessons learned and challenges http://www.accessdemocracy.org/files/19_elect_mgmt99.pdf [PDF document], Jennings, K, NDI, 1999. Discusses how to persuade voters that voting will make a difference and how to instil confidence in the integrity of the electoral process.
Street Law http://www.streetlaw.org/. Promotes practical, participatory education about law, democracy, and human rights aiming at cooperative learning, critical thinking and the ability to participate in a democratic society.

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Information and Communications Technology (ICT)

African Centre for Women, Information and Communications Technology (ACWICT) http://www.acwict.org/ Promote women's access to and use of ICTs as tools for social, economic and political advancement by advocating for gender responsive ICT policies, laws and regulations; ICT skills building and capacity development, facilitating creation of networks and research and awareness creation.
APC-Africa-Women http://www.apcafricawomen.org/ (English, French) Network of that works to empower organisations to access and use Information and Communication Technologies; site includes useful resources on ICT tools and their use.
Association for Progressive Communications (APC) http://www.apc.org (English, French). An international network of civil society organisations dedicated to empowering and supporting through the strategic use of ICTs. Pioneers practical and relevant uses of ICTs for civil society.
Bridges.org http://www.bridges.org. An international non-profit organisation that aims to promote the use of ICTs by people in developing countries. Fosters access to ICT by providing information and resources; advising decision-makers and the public and supporting grassroots projects.
Gender, Science and Technology Gateway http://gstgateway.wigsat.org/ Resource for researchers, policy makers, and NGOs. It provides key links and information on research, practice, policy and partners.
Democracy Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Guide http://www.wmd.org/resources/information-technology-guide, WMD. Developed to identify online tools and resources designed to assist groups in using information communication technology more effectively. Provides technical assistance, funding sourcing, training and toolkits.
DO-WIRE http://www.e-democracy.org/do/. Mailing list for issues related to with the convergence of democracy and the Internet around the world and the development of eDemocracy.
Geographic Information systems (GIS) http://www.gis.com/whatisgis/index.html. An introductory overview of GIS computer technology for laymen, with concrete illustrative examples.
Kabissa http://www.kabissa.org/. An NGO that helps African civil society organization put ICT, and especially the Internet, to work. Provides news, web tools, software and learning resources.

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Management bodies: Africa

See also ACE "Electoral Management" http://aceproject.org/epic-en/CDMap?question=EM. Global list with links to web sites.

Algeria Ministére de l'Intérieur et des Collectivités Locales: "Elections législatives", http://www.interieur.gov.dz/Dynamics/frmCategories.aspx?htmls=13&s=23
Angola Comissão Nacional Eleitoral: [www] http://www.cne.gv.ao/ (Portuguese).
Benin Commission Électorale Nationale Autonome (CENA) http://www.cenabenin.org (French). Link not working on 19 Jan 2010. Botswana Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.gov.bw/.
Burkina Faso Commission Électorale Nationale Indépendante (CENI) http://www.ceni.bf/ (French).
Burundi Commission Électorale Nationale Indépendante http://www.ceniburundi.bi
Cameroon Elections Cameroon http://www.elecam.cm
Cape Verde Comissão Nacional de Eleições (CNE) http://www.cne.cv/ (Portuguese).
Central African Republic Commission Électorale Indépendante http://www.commissionÉlectoraleIndépendantederca.sitew.com
Chad Commission Électorale Nationale Indépendante (CENI) [www] http://www.ceni-td.org/ (French)
Côte d'Ivoire Commission Nationale Électorale http://www.ceici.org
Democratic Republic of Congo Commission Électorale Nationale Indépendante http://www.ceni.gouv.cd
Djibouti Independent National Electoral Commission http://www.ceni.dj
Egypt High Electoral Commission www.elections.eg or http://www.elections2011.eg
Ethiopia National Electoral Board of Ethiopia (NEBE) http://www.electionsethiopia.org/ (English, Amharic). No content on 19 Jan 2010.
The Gambia Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.gm.
Ghana Electoral Commission of Ghana (ECG) www.ec.gov.gh/
Guinea Commission Électorale Nationale Indépendante www.ceniguinee.org
Kenya Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission http://iebc.or.ke
Lesotho Independent Electoral Commission http://www.iec.org.ls/ [connecting slow and erratic]
Liberia National Elections Commission (NEC) http://www.necliberia.org/.
Madagascar Commission Électorale Nationale Indépendante pour la Transition http://www.ceni-madagascar.mg
Malawi Malawi Electoral Commission (MEC) http://www.mec.org.mw/.
Mauritius Electoral Commissioner's Office (ECO) http://www.gov.mu/portal/site/eco.
Mozambique Comissão Nacional de Eleições (CNE)http://www.stae.org.mz/ (Portuguese).
Namibia Electoral Commission of Namibia (ECN) http://www.ecn.na/
Nigeria Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) http://www.inecnigeria.org/.
Rwanda Commission Nationale Électorale (CNE) http://www.comelena.gov.rw (English, French, Kinyarwanda).
Senegal Commission Électorale Nationale Autonome (CENA) http://www.cena.sn
Seychelles Electoral Commissioner's Office http://www.ecs.sc/.
Sierra Leone National Electoral Commission http://www.nec-sierraleone.org
Somaliland (autonomous region) National Electoral Commission of Somaliland http://www.necsomaliland.net/.
South Africa Independent Electoral Commission (IEC) http://www.elections.org.za.
Sudan National Elections Commission http://nec.org.sd/new/new/english/index.php
Swaziland Elections and Boundaries Commission http://www.gov.sz/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=366&Itemid=343
Tanzania National Electoral Commission (NEC) http://www.nec.go.tz/.
Togo Commission Électorale Nationale Indépendante http://www.cenitogo.tg
Uganda Electoral Commission http://www.ec.or.ug/.
Zambia Electoral Commission (ECZ) http://www.elections.org.zm/.
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Electoral Commission (ZEC) http://www.zec.org.zw/.

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Observation

Building Confidence in the Voter Registration Process: An NDI Monitoring Guide for Political Parties and Civic Organizations, Klein, RL & Merloe, P, 2001, NDI. Guide to the role and types of voter registration systems; the importance of monitoring these systems; and techniques for monitoring, http://www.ndi.org/node/12886.
Declaration on Criteria for Free and Fair Elections, IPU 1994, http://www.ipu.org/Cnl-e/154-free.htm.
Declaration on the Principles Governing Democratic Elections in Africa, African Union, 2002, http://www.un.org/democracyfund/Docs/AfricanCharterDemocracy.pdf.
Declaration of Principles for International Election Observation and Code of Conduct for International Election Observers, UN 2005, http://www.cartercenter.org/documents/2231.pdf.
Election Observation (Chapter 9) (second edition), NORDEM, 2002. Exhaustive and systematic observation guide, http://www.jus.uio.no/smr/english/about/programmes/nordem/publications/manual/current/kap9.pdf [PDF Document], Høgdahl, K IN Manual on Human Rights Monitoring: An Introduction for Human Rights Field Officers, http://www.jus.uio.no/smr/english/about/programmes/nordem/publications/manual/.
Election Observation Handbook (6th edition), OSCE, 2010, 119. Considers the basis for election observation and the framework for a mission. Looks at preparations, the pre-election period, voting and counting procedures. Covers post-election developments and reporting, http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/68439?download=true [PDF document].
Guidelines for African Union Electoral Observation and Monitoring Missions (Draft), AU 2002. Provides criteria for determining the nature and scope of EOMs, mandates and responsibilities, code of conduct for observers, principles governing free elections, http://www.africa-union.org/Structure_of_the_Commission/Political%20Affairs/ AU%20GUIDELINES%20FOR%20ELECTIONS%20OBSERV%20&%20MONITORING%20MISSIONS.pdf.
Manual on African Union Election Observation. The AU has gradually emerged as a guarantor of democratic elections and election observation in Africa and it was important to develop a systematic approach to how election-related activities are conducted to AU election observers with a standardised way of conducting observation activities of the organisation.
Norms and Standards for elections in the SADC region SADC PF 2001 http://aceproject.org/ero-en/regions/africa/regional-resources-africa/sadcpf_electionnormsstandards.pdf.
Principles and Guidelines Governing Democratic Elections, SADC 2004, http://www.sadc.int/english/documents/political_affairs/index.php.
PEMMO - Principles for Election Management, Monitoring and Observation in the SADC Region, EISA/SADC ECF 2003.
Quick Count and Election Observation - An NDI Guide for Civic Organizations and Political Parties, Estok, M & Nevitte, N & Cowan, G, 2002, NDI, 182. Provides tools for systematic observation of election day processes. Covers planning, organisation, recruiting, training, communications; analytical techniques and quick count findings, http://www.ndi.org/node/12993 [PDF document].

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Results databases

African Elections Database http://africanelections.tripod.com/, Nunley, AC. Extensive data base of Sub-Saharan election results, calendars and directories. Sadly, not updated since 2008.
Election Watch http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/election.watch, CNN. Comprehensive database of election results through out the world.
Electionworld.org http://www.electionworld.org/. Once a comprehensive and up to date resource, its content is being transferred to Wikipedia and it is no longer updated.
Psephos: Adam Carr's Election Archive http://psephos.adam-carr.net, Carr, A. Comprehensive database of international and some sub-national election results as well as electoral maps for selected countries.
Electionguide.org http://www.electionguide.org/, IFES. Extensive and up to date international election results.
Wikipedia's Elections by country http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electoral_calendar. Through database of election results based on the now discontinued Electionworld.org.

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Systems and administration

Organisations

African Democracy Forum http://africandemocracyforum.org/ An African regional network of democracy, human rights, and governance organisations. The ADF seeks to consolidate democracy in Africa by providing opportunities for democrats to openly express their views while also acting as a platform for mutual support and the sharing of resources.
Carter Center http://www.cartercenter.org/. Organisation founded by former US president Jimmy Carter. It is committed to advancing human rights and alleviating unnecessary human suffering, especially in developing countries. Advances democracy as a method for defusing conflict and facilitating human development.
Center for Democracy and Election Management (CDEM) http://www.american.edu/ia/cdem/. University level teaching and research programs around the management and conduct of elections throughout the world; cross-regional comparison of democratic institutions; and election-mediation as a method for resolving civil conflict.
Center for the Study of Democracy http://www.democ.uci.edu/. The Center fosters academic research and education on democratic processes to strengthen democracy. It hosts research conferences, sponsors research, publishes papers and facilitates research and teaching about democracy.
Center for the Study of Islam & Democracy (CSID) http://www.csidonline.org (English, Arabic). A non-profit organisation dedicated to studying Islamic and democratic political thought and merging them into a modern Islamic democratic discourse.
Commonwealth Secretariat Democracy Programme http://www.thecommonwealth.org/Templates/Internal.asp?NodeID=39260&int1stParentNodeID=20639. Aims to ensure that democracy is established in Commonwealth countries, formulates and promotes Best Practices and takes action against countries which disregard democratic principles.
Council for a Community of Democracies (CCD) http://www.ccd21.org/. An NGO striving for nations to work together to strengthen democracy, transparency of processes, sound electoral systems, respect for human rights and the rule of law, active civic education and prevention of corruption.
IFES http://www.ifes.org/. Provides targeted, technical assistance to strengthen transitional democracies. IFES professionals work closely with local networks.
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA) http://www.idea.int/. Intergovernmental organisation that operates at the interface between those who analyse and monitor trends in democracy and those who engage directly in political reform.
National Democratic Institute (NDI) http://www.ndi.org/. A nonprofit organization that uses a global network of volunteer experts to provide practical assistance to civic and political leaders advancing democratic values, practices and institutions. Builds political and civic organizations.
Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy http://www.nimd.org/. Encourages democratisation in young democracies by providing support to political parties. Has programmes in 9 African countries and a West Africa Regional Programme.
OSAGI http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/. Function is to promote and strengthen the effective implementation of the Millennium Declaration, the Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women.
United Nations Electoral Assistance Division http://www.un.org/Depts/dpa/ead/eadhome.htm. The Electoral Assistance Division is responsible for the coordination of electoral assistance on legal, technical, administrative, and human rights aspects of organising and conducting elections and international observation.
US AID Center of Excellence on Democracy, Human Rights and Governance http://transition.usaid.gov/our_work/democracy_and_governance/technical_areas/dg_office/index.html. Promotes democracy and good governance. Aimed at strengthening the rule of law and respect for human rights, promoting genuinely competitive political processes, developing civil society and promoting transparency and accountability.

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Projects

ACE Electoral Knowledge Network (ACE) http://www.aceproject.org/The ACE Electoral Knowledge Network is the next generation of the Administration and Cost of Elections web site. Makes available new tools and resources for electoral practitioners around the world. EISA has worked as one of the seven partner organisations that have built the new site.
Buyer's Guide to Election Supplies http://www.ifesbuyersguide.com, IFES. Provides election authorities with information on the procurement of electoral goods and services. Contains a directory of firms from which these may be sourced.
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems http://www.cses.org. Project to create a comprehensive database of electoral information using a common set of survey questions, which are administered throughout the world by social scientists in each country. Currently contains variable list, inputted data and preliminary reports.
Democratic Audit http://www.democraticaudit.com/. A consortium of scholars, lawyers and others engaged in audits of electoral systems. Features a framework for auditing democracy in any country (http://www.democraticaudit.com/auditing_democracy/).
Democracy Gateway (2003) http://www.cceia.org/education/004/bibliographies/1074.html, Carnegie Council. Portal providing access to work by governmental and non-governental organisations on promoting democracy around the world. Links are annotated.
ElectionAccess.org http://www.electionaccess.org/, IFES. Clearinghouse for information on the participation of people with disabilities in the electoral process. Committed to improving access through technical assistance and support to governmental and non-governental organisations in new and emerging democracies.
Electoral Process Information Collection (EPIC) http://www.epicproject.org Provides a systematic collection of how countries actually manage their elections for comparative purposes; compliments ACE (see above).
Elections and Electoral Systems Around the World http://www.psr.keele.ac.uk/election.htm. The School of Politics, International Relations & the Environment, Keele University. Resource portal with links arranged by country. See also http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/por/elections.htm for portal arranged thematically.
Global Database of Quotas for Women http://www.quotaproject.org/ International IDEA and Stockholm University. Includes country case studies with detailed information on quotas by region and country Working Papers from Stockholm University working paper series and a discussion forum.
Win with Women Initiative http://winwithwomen.ndi.org/, NDI. Promotes women's political participation worldwide through the Global Action Plan: a document that outlines practical recommendations that will help political parties broaden their appeal by becoming more inclusive and representative.

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Key documents, handbooks and manuals

African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance www.un.org/democracyfund/Docs/AfricanCharterDemocracy.pdf [English]; http://www.africa-union.org/Official_documents/Treaties_Conventions_fr/ Charte%20africaine%20de%20la%20Democratie.pdf[Français]; African Union, 2004, adopted 30 January 2007, pp 20.
Electoral Justice: The International IDEA Handbook http://www.idea.int/publications/electoral_justice/index.html, International IDEA, 2011, pp 246. Handbook for academics and electoral officers within administrative and judicial institutions of all that encompasses electoral dispute resolution, ranging from prevention to resolution.
Electoral Management Design http://www.idea.int/publications/emd/index.cfm, International IDEA, 2004, pp 392. Handbook for electoral administrators, electoral administration designers and practitioners for building professional, sustainable and cost-effective electoral administrations which can deliver legitimate and credible free and fair elections. A comparative study that shares best practices from around the world on financing, structuring and evaluation of Electoral Management Bodies.
Electoral System Design: the New International IDEA Handbook http://www.idea.int/publications/esd/. Reynolds, A, Reilly, B & Ellis, A, International IDEA, 2005. Distils lessons from past. Sets out criteria for decision making; categorizes electoral systems; looks at representation of marginalised groups; examines cost of systems (Arabic, French).
Electoral Systems and Processes Practice Note http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/democratic-governance/electoral_systemsandprocesses/electoral-systems-and-processes-practice-note-.html [PDF document], UNDP, 2004, pp 84. Establishes a framework for UNDP activities in electoral assistance. Focuses on the components of electoral assistance, the primary areas in which UNDP and others have worked, recent trends in the field, and lessons learned.
Enhancing Women's Full Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-Conflict Countries: A Compilation of Selected Resources http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/feature/postconflict/index.htm, OSAGI. Compilation of relevant scholarly papers and literature reviews.
Framework for Democratic Party Building http://aceproject.org/ero-en/misc/a-framework-for-democratic-party-building-handbook/at_download/file [PDF document], Saffu, Y, García, F (Bolivia) & Zovatto, D, 2004, Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy. Reviews importance of political parties for democracy, their functions, institutional development, functioning of political parties and relations with CSOs.
Funding of Political Parties and Election Campaigns http://www.idea.int/publications/funding_parties/upload/full.pdf [PDF document], Austin, R & Tjernstrëm, M (eds), International IDEA, 2003, pp 262. Provides an overview of major issues debated and problems encountered. It incorporates sections on current practice in various regions. Chapters on enforcement of regulations governing party finances and strategies for gender equality.
Guidelines for Reviewing a Legal Framework for Elections http://www.legislationline.org/documents/id/15484 [PDF document], OCSE. Sets forth basic components of legal framework governing elections. Aims at uniformity, reliability, consistency, and accuracy in the review of election-related texts. Also provides guidance for the drafting or amending of legal instruments.
Handbook on Technology and Electoral Registration: Experiences in Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe and East Timor http://exadigital.com.br/Tecnologia%20Eleitoral%20ENG.pdf [PDF document], Paulo Siqueira, Pro PALOP-ET, 2014. Handbook aims at evaluating the impact of technology in the electoral registration systems and specifically characterize the different analyzed systems.
The implementation of Quotas: African experiences http://www.idea.int/publications/quotas_africa/upload/IDEA_no3.qxd.pdf [PDF document], Ballington, J, International IDEA. Examines women's political representation in African and shows how quotas have increased women's access to power. This report illustrates the different quota types that are being implemented in different political contexts.
Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers http://www.idea.int/publications/wip2/upload/WiP_inlay.pdf [PDF document], Revised Edition 2005, International IDEA. Examines obstacles women confront when entering Parliament (political, socio-economic or ideological and psychological), presents solutions to overcome these obstacles, such as changing electoral systems and introducing quotas, and it details strategies for women to influence politics once they are elected to parliament.

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Good governance

Civil society bodies

Africa in Democracy and Good Governance http://www.spanglefish.com/adgg/ Lobbies for reforms in governments, campaigns against corruption and for the rule of law and democratic principles and the protection of hunan right through advocacy, litigation, training, research, documentation and publishing.
CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation http://www.civicus.org/. CIVICUS is an international alliance of civil organisations dedicated to strengthening citizen action and civil society throughout the world through a wide variety of programmes.
Centre for Policy Studies http://www.cps.org.za/intro.htm. Produces research on Africa's policies, governance and democratisation challenges on governance, democratisation, civil society, development and delivery, International Relations, employment and enterprise and policy and implementation.
Centre for Democracy and Development http://www.cddwestafrica.org/. Promote the values of democracy, peace & human rights in West Africa through advocacy, training and research in governance, human rights, peace & security, environment, gender and socio-economic Development.
Freedom House http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=1. Conducts advocacy, education, and training initiatives that promote human rights, democracy, free market economics, the rule of law, independent media, and US engagement in international affairs. Publishes country evaluation ratings and reports.
Institute for a Democratic South Africa (IDASA) http://www.idasa.org.za/ Promotes sustainable democracy in South Africa and elsewhere by building democratic institutions, educating citizens and advocating social justice.
Institute for Security Studies http://www.iss.co.za/. A non-profit trust works towards a stable and peaceful Africa characterised by sustained development, human rights, the rule of law, democracy and collaborative security through research, advocacy, training and information dissemination.
International Women's Democracy Center http://www.iwdc.org/about/index.htm Strengthens women's global leadership through training, education, networking and research with a focus on increasing the participation of women in politics, policy and decision-making within their own government.
International Republican Institute (IRI) http://www.iri.org/. Nonprofit organization that advances democracy, freedom, self-government and the rule of law worldwide. Programs include training on civic responsibility, the legislative process for newly elected governments and the organizing political parties and election campaigns.
Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA) http://www.misa.org/. An NGO with chapters in 11 of the SADC countries. MISA focuses promoting a free, independent and pluralistic media. MISA acts as a coordinator, facilitator and communicator for these efforts.
National Endowment for Democracy http://www.ned.org/. A private, non-profit organization created in 1983 to strengthen democratic institutions around the world through nongovernmental efforts. It makes hundreds of grants each year to support pro-democracy groups.
Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa (OSISA) http://www.osisa.org/index.php?option=displaypage&Itemid=79&op=page&SubMenu=. Promotes an open society through identifying and financing organisations that go beyond social welfare interventions and attempt to change underlying policy, legislation and practice.
Parliamentary Centre http://centroparlamentario.org/ [English, French]. Canadian based NGO, devoted to improving the effectiveness of representative assemblies around the world; Africa Program, strengthen systems of good governance, accountability systems, and specifically the capacity for effective parliamentary oversight with the aim of contributing to sustainable development.
Southern African Research and Documentation Centre (SARDC) http://www.sardc.net/. An independent information resource centre which collects, produces and disseminates information, and information capacity generation. Main focuses include gender, democracy and governance.
Transparency International http://www.transparency.org/. International NGO devoted to combating corruption, with a focus on preventing corruption and reforming governance systems. Works on both international and international level advocating reform and monitoring compliance.
World Movement for Democracy www.wmd.org A global network of democrats, including activists, practitioners, academics, policy makers, and funders, who have come together to develop new forms of cooperation to promote the development of democracy.

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Intergovernmental organisations

African Development Bank Group (ADBG) http://www.afdb.org/ (English, French). The ADBG facilitates social and economic development through loans, equity investments, and technical assistance including identify governance priorities and areas of intervention to safe guard against corruption.
African Union http://www.africa-union.org/ (English, Arabic, French, Portuguese). AUs official web-site, including a database of key treaties, conventions & protocols.
Inter-Parliamentary Union http://www.ipu.org/english/home.htm (English, French). The international organization of Parliaments; a focal point for world-wide parliamentary dialogue and works for peace and co-operation among peoples and for the firm establishment of representative democracy.
International Monetary Fund http://www.imf.org/. Fosters monetary cooperation, financial stability, international trade, high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduces poverty. Standards & Codes provides links to governance guidelines: [www w] http://www.imf.org/external/standards/index.htm.
Pan-African Parliament http://www.pan-african-parliament.org/ (English, Arabic, French, Portuguese, Kiswahili). Promotes, amongst other things, the principles of human rights and democracy and encourages good governance, transparency and accountability.
SADC Parliamentary Forum (SADC PF) http://www.sadcpf.org/. An autonomous institution of SADC composed of twelve parliaments. Promotes multiparty democracy, the rule of law, human rights, good governance, gender equality and political stability in the SADC.
Southern African Development Community (SADC) http://www.sadc.int (English, French, Portuguese). SADC's official web-site, including a database of key treaties, conventions & protocols.
UNDP Oslo Governance Centre http://www.undp.org/oslocentre/. UNDP Oslo Governance Centre is UNDP's global facility on democratic governance. The Centre has a special focus and competency in the area of access to justice, human rights, civil society, and governance and conflict prevention.
World Bank http://web.worldbank.org (English, Arabic, French). Focus is on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals that call for the elimination of poverty and sustained development. One of four main programmatic goals is to combat corruption.

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Projects

AfDevInfo http://www.afdevinfo.com/, Aim is to provide a holistic, one-stop shop for objective information on all aspects of development in Africa by providing accessible, structured, high quality information.
AfriMAP http://www.afrimap.org (English, French), OSISA. Monitor and promotes compliance by African states with the requirements of good governance, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Works with civil society organizations and OSISA foundations to research and publish reports on countries.
Ashoka's Changemaker http://www.changemakers.net/. Attempts to provide on-the-ground innovations for managing conflict. Provides solutions and resources needed to help individuals become changemakers and explores the principles of successful social innovation. Encourages competition to find solutions and collaboration to refine them.
Democratic Audit http://www.democraticaudit.com/. A research organisation which audits democracy and human rights. Site contains a framework for auditing democracy in any country: http://www.democraticaudit.com/auditing_democracy/.
Democracy Gateway (2003) http://www.cceia.org/education/004/bibliographies/1074.html, Carnegie Council. Portal providing access to work by governmental and non-governental organisations on promoting democracy around the world. Links are annotated.
European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/eidhr/index_en.htm (English, French), European Commission. Aims to promote and support human rights and democracy in countries beyond the EU. Focuses democratization, good governance, civil society, and the rule of law.
GERDDES AFRIQUE http://www.gerddes.org/accueil.php (French). Son objectif est de faire la promotion et le monitoring de la démocratie pour accélérer le développement économique et social.
Global Database of Quotas for Women http://www.quotaproject.org/, International IDEA and Stockholm University. Includes country case studies with detailed information on quotas by region and country Working Papers from Stockholm University working paper series and a discussion forum on gender quotas.
iKNOW [English, French, Spanish; requires registration] http://www.iknowpolitics.org/; UNDP, UNIFEM, NDI, IPU, International IDEA. Resource on Women in Politics aimed at elected officials, candidates, political party leaders and members, researchers, students and other practitioners. Includes access to experts, library, discussion forums and tools for exchanging experiences.
International Budget Project http://www.internationalbudget.org/. Nurtures the growth of civil society capacity to analyze and influence government budget processes, institutions and outcomes, particularly on the impact of the budget on poor and low-income people in developing countries or new democracies.
moneyandpolitics.net http://www.ifes.org/Research/Cross-Cutting/Money-Politics.aspx, IFES. Seeks to combat political corruption around the world through transparency, enforcement, and accountability through its Program on Political Finance.
US AID Center of Excellence on Democracy, Human Rights and Governance http://transition.usaid.gov/our_work/democracy_and_governance/technical_areas/dg_office/index.html. Promotes democracy and good governance. Aimed at strengthening the rule of law and respect for human rights, promoting genuinely competitive political processes, developing civil society and promoting transparency and accountability.

New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) http://www.nepad.org/ (English, French), OAU. A vision and strategic framework for Africa's renewal. A key element is the African Peer Review Mechanism to promote good governance: http://www.nepad.org/2005/files/documents/49.pdf.
Southern African Information portal on corruption (IPOC) http://www.ipocafrica.org/, ISS. Provides Anti-Corruption practitioners in government and the private sector, researchers, policy makers and civil society activists with an information database, case studies, contacts and news.

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News sites

AlertNet http://www.alertnet.org, Reuters Foundation. A humanitarian news network that aims to keep relief professionals and the wider public up-to-date on humanitarian crises around the globe.
AllAfrica.com http://allafrica.com/ (English, French). A continent-wide electronic provider of African news, with over 800 stories daily. Strategic alliances with Comtex News Network, Radio France Internationale, and the BBC extend news reach. Subscription required to access archives.
Civil Society Watch http://http://www.civicus.org/csw. A CIVICUS free monthly e-mail newsletter in HTML format featuring selected alerts on crises that require action, analysis pieces and country news updates aimed at informing subscribers on civil society current events.
Conflict and Religion http://conflict-religion.com. Website dealing with conflicts in which religions plays an important role.
democracy at large http://www.democracyatlarge.org/, IFES. A quarterly magazine designed for professionals interested in democracy development worldwide. The full content of the magazine is available only to subscribers of the print edition, but one article per issue is free to all visitors.
DO-WIRE http://www.e-democracy.org/do/. Provides a news mailing list for all things related to with the convergence of democracy and the Internet around the world and the development of eDemocracy.
International Observer http://www.theinternationalobserver.com/. A monthly newsletter on government and political developments around the world. Focuses on elections, government changes, cabinet and ministerial changes, national leadership, legislatures, and political parties.
Internews http://www.internews.org. Works to improve access to quality information for people around the world by fostering independent media and promoting open communications policies in the public interest.
IRIN News http://www.irinnews.org (English, French), UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Provide news and analysis about sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia for the humanitarian community. Organised by theme (such as "Democracy & Governance") as well as by region.
Media Monitoring Project http://www.mediamonitoring.org.za/ Aims to promote development of free, fair, ethical and critical media culture in Africa through "watchdog" activites, informing and engageing key stakeholders to improve reporting quality and ethics and influenceing communication legislation and media codes of conduct.
OneWorld.net. http://oneworld.net/ Brings together the latest news and views from over 1,600 organizations promoting human rights awareness and fighting poverty worldwide.
OpenDemocracy.net http://www.opendemocracy.net/, openDemocracy Foundation for the Advancement of Global Education. A non-profit, non-partisan online global magazine dedicated to opening up a democratic space and stimulating debate.
Pambazuka News http://www.pambazuka.org/. Offers a comprehensive weekly round-up of news on human rights, conflict, health, environment, social welfare, development, the internet, literature and arts in Africa.
Peace Negotiations Watch http://www.publicinternationallaw.org/peace/, Public International Law and Policy Group & American University. A weekly electronic compilation of articles about various disputes around the world.

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Key documents

African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance www.un.org/democracyfund/Docs/AfricanCharterDemocracy.pdf [English]; http://www.africa-union.org/Official_documents/Treaties_Conventions_fr/ Charte%20africaine%20de%20la%20Democratie.pdf[Français]; African Union, 2004, adopted 30 January 2007, pp 20.
African (Banjul) Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/Documents/Treaties/Text/Banjul%20Charter.pdf [PDF document]. Adopted 27 June 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1982, OAU). International treaty binding OAU members to respect for human rights, the rule of law and democratic governance.
Aso Rock Commonwealth Declaration on Development and Democracy: Partnership for Peace and Prosperity (2003) http://www.thecommonwealth.org/shared_asp_files/uploadedfiles/%7BE7A2A23D-FD9F-418B-B2D4- CC39FFD2FEF2%7D_Aso%20Rock%20Declaration.pdf [PDF document]. Commonwealth of Nations. Adopted by Commonwealth Heads of Government met in Abuja, Nigeria.
Constitutive Act (11 July, 2000). African Union http://www.africa-union.org/root/au/AboutAU/Constitutive_Act_en.htm. Adopted by the Thirty-Sixth Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government - Lome, Togo.
Declaration of Principles for International Election Observation and Code of Conduct for International Election Observers http://www.eisa.org.za/EISA/unp.htm (French & English). Commemorated October 27, 2005, at the United Nations, New York.
Declaration on the Principles Governing Democratic Elections in Africa, African Union, 2002, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/compilation_democracy/ahg.htm.
Declaration on Democracy, Political, Economic and Corporate Governance http://www.iss.co.za/AF/RegOrg/unity_to_union/pdfs/au/H3_nepad.pdf [PDF document], OAU. Adopted at Thirty-Eighth Ordinary Session, 8 July 2002, in Durban, South Africa.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm. Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) (especially Article 25). (16 December 1966, UN). International treaty (one of seven "core treaties") binding UN members to respect for human rights, the rule of law and democratic governance.
Norms and Standards for Elections in the SADC Region http://www.eisa.org.za/PDF/sadcpf.pdf [PDF document]. Adopted by the SADC Parliamentary Forum Plenary Assembly on the 25th March 2001, Windhoek, Namibia.
SADC Principles and Guidelines Governing Democratic Elections http://www.sadc.int/english/documents/political_affairs/index.php. Adopted in Mauritius by the SADC Summit in September 2004.
United Nations Millennium Declaration, 8 September 2000 http://www.fasngo.org/assets/files/resources/MILLENIUM_GOALS.pdf [PDF document].

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Handbooks and manuals

Guidance for Promoting Judicial Independence and Impartiality (Revised Edition) http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNACM007.pdf [PDF document], US AID 2002. Aims to evaluate current approaches to judicial independence, bring expertise to address intransigent problems of promoting judicial independence and assist field officers.
Human rights and Elections: A handbook on the Legal, Technical and Human Rights Aspects of Elections http://www.unhchr.ch/hredu.nsf/GV04en/AC4DEE12E651472FC1256AE300374D8E, Arabic, English, Russian. United Nations, 2004, Geneva, Switzerland. Comprehensive presentation of standards and issues related to the conduct of free and fair elections.
Media Monitoring to Promote Democratic Elections: An NDI Handbook for Citizen Organizations http://www.ndi.org/node/12997, Arabic, English. Norris, R & Merloe, P, NDI,2002. Assists those who are working for freedom of the press, to ensure that political competitors are able to communicate through the mass media and to ensure citizens informed choices.
Money in Politics Handbook: A Guide to Increasing Transparency in Emerging Democracies http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pdf/usaidmoneypolitics.pdf, USAID Office of Democracy and Governance, 2003. Provides an overview of campaign and party finance, the role of money in politics, and how countries regulate funds. Summarizes strategies to control flow and suggests program options.

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Women's empowerment

UN bodies

Commission on the Status of Women http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/ Organ of the United Nations Economic and Social Council; principal global policy-making body, evaluates progress on gender equality, identify challenges, set global standards and formulate concrete policies.
Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/ Facilitates policy, global standards and norms formation, implementation of international agreements and the mainstreaming of gender perspectives.
UNIFEM http://www.unifem.org/ United Nations Development Fund for Women; provides financial and technical assistance to innovative programmes and strategies to foster women's empowerment and gender equality.
Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality (IANWGE) http://www.un.org/womenwatch/ianwge/ Network of Gender Focal Points in United Nations offices, specialized agencies, funds and programmes.
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW) http://www.un-instraw.org/ Research and training institute that promotes applied research on gender, facilitates information sharing, and supports capacity building through networking mechanisms and multi-stakeholder partnerships.
OSAGI http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/. Function is to promote and strengthen the effective implementation of the Millennium Declaration, the Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women.
Women Watch http://www.un.org/womenwatch/ Provides a central gateway to information and resources on the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women throughout the United Nations system.

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International organisations

Association for Women's Rights in Development (AWID) http://www.awid.org/ (English, French, Spanish) International network of researchers, academics, students, educators, activists, business people, policy-makers, development practitioners and funders. Site features theoretical and practical publications.
Association of African Women for Research and Development (AAWORD) http://www.afard.org/ (English, French). Pan-African NGO, undertakes and supports research and training and advocacy for promoting the economic, political and social rights of African women.
Equality Now http://www.equalitynow.org (Arabic, English, French, Spanish) Documents violence and discrimination against women, distributes information about violations, protests violations and brings public attention to violations.
Global Fund for Women http://www.globalfundforwomen.org/ Nonprofit foundation that makes grants to women-led organizations that promote the economic security, health, safety, education and leadership of women and girls.
Human Rights Watch: Women's Rights Division http://www.hrw.org/en/category/topic/women (Arabic, English, French, Portuguese and others) Aims to improve the responsiveness of the international human rights system to violations of women's person and rights by documenting and publicizing them.
International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE) http://www.iaffe.org/ Seeks to advance feminist inquiry of economic issues and to educate economists and others on feminist points of view on economic issues by holding international, regional and national conferences, meetings and workshops.
International Centre for Research on women (ICRW) http://www.icrw.org/ Mission is to empower women, advance gender equality and fight poverty in developing world through empirical research, capacity building and advocacy for evidence-based, practical ways to change policies and programs.
International Women's Tribune Center (IWTC) http://www.iwtc.org/ Aids those working to improve the lives of low-income women through providing communication, information, education, and organizing support services.
International Women's Democracy Center http://www.iwdc.org/about/index.htm Strengthens women's global leadership through training, education, networking and research with a focus on increasing the participation of women in politics, policy and decision-making within their own government.
Isis International - Manila http://www.isiswomen.org/ Monitors, analyses and advocates issues related to women and media, information and communication technologies.
Isis Women's International Cross-Cultural Exchange (Isis-WICCE) http://www.isis.or.ug/ promotes Justice, and empowerment of women globally through documenting violations of women's rights and facilitating the exchange of information and skills, to strengthen women's capacities, potential, and visibility.
KARAMAH: Muslim Women Lawyers for Human Rights http://www.karamah.org/ (Arabic, English) Focuses on domestic and global issues of human rights for Muslims through research, education, and advocacy work.
MADRE http://www.madre.org/ (English, Spanish) Addresses issues of health and reproductive rights, economic development, education, and other human rights by providing resources, training, and support.
WOMANKIND Worldwide http://www.womankind.org.uk Donor organisation providing funding, training, and networking and learning opportunities for women's organisations focused on women's development and empowerment in developing countries.
Women's Initiatives for Gender Justice (WIGJ) http://www.iccwomen.org/ Acts to ensure that the International Criminal Court becomes an effective means of securing justice for victims of sexualized violence and gender based crimes.
Women's Learning Partnership for Peace and Development (WLP) http://www.learningpartnership.org/ Aims to develop women's leadership and empowerment in Muslim majority countries through leadership training, building organizational capacity, campaigns, dialogues, advocacy and networking.

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African organisations

ABANTU Regional Office West Africa (ABANTU-ROWA) http://www.abantu-rowa.org Aims to build the capacity of women to participate in decision-making at all levels, to influence policies from a gender perspective and to address inequalities and injustices in social relations by strengthening the management and service delivery capacities of NGOs and CBOs.
Africa Gender and Development Evaluators Network http://agden.org/ Network develops evaluation tools and methodologies, and encourages the implementation of gender-sensitive evaluations across the continent. Site includes extensive assessment resources and directories.
African Gender Institute http://web.uct.ac.za/org/agi/ Academic institute aimed at building intellectual capacity and establishing an African resource dedicated to strengthening and advancing the work of intellectuals, researchers, policy-makers and practitioners committed to the attainment of gender equity.
African Women's Development and Communication Network (FEMNET) http://www.femnet.or.ke/ Strengthens NGOs focusing on women's development, equality and other human rights; provides a channel through which these NGOs can reach one another and share experiences, information and strategies.
African Women's Development Fund (AWDF) http://www.awdf.org/ (English, French) Fundraising and grant-making initiative, which aims to support the work of the African Women's movement in the areas of Women's Human Rights, Political Participation, Peace Building, Health, Reproductive Rights, Economic Empowerment and HIV/AIDS.
African Women's Economic Policy Network (AWEPON) http://www.awepon.org/ Aims to strengthen the capacity of women to influence the economic policy by creating a forum for analysis, discussion and dissemination of information and training and research, the capacity building.
Arab Women's Solidarity Association (AWSA) http://www.awsa.net/ (Arabic, English) Promotes Arab women's active participation in social, economic, cultural, and political life by organizing international conferences, developing income generating projects for economically underprivileged women, publishing literary magazines and books and producing films.
Center of Arab Women for Training and Research (CAWTAR) http://www.cawtar.org/ Aims to improve and promote role and status of women in development process through poverty-reduction programmes, women development activities, human rights advancement activities and publication of Development Reports.
Femmes Africa Solidarité (FAS) http://www.fasngo.org/ NGO working to engender the peace process in Africa by strengthening capacities of grassroots organizations.
Gender Links http://www.genderlinks.org.za Southern Africa focused; engages in research, training materials development, strengthening analysis, media and communication skills of activists, network creation and monitoring and evaluating change.
Women and Law in Southern Africa Research and Education Trust (WLSA) http://www.wlsa.org.zm/ Mission is to contribute to the sustained well-being of women within families and societies within the Southern Africa through collaborative strategic and action research in the socio-legal field and promoting of lobbying for legal reforms and policy changes on laws and practices that disadvantage women.
Women in Law and Development in Africa (WiLDAF) http://www.wildaf.org/ Network of NGOs who use the law as a strategic tool to promote and protect women's rights through training, lobbying and advocacy.

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Projects and programmes

African Centre for Women, Information and Communications Technology (ACWICT) http://www.acwict.org/ Promote women's access to and use of ICTs as tools for social, economic and political advancement by advocating for gender responsive ICT policies, laws and regulations; ICT skills building and capacity development, facilitating creation of networks and research and awareness creation.
APC-Africa-Women http://www.apcafricawomen.org/ (English, French) Network of that works to empower organisations to access and use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT); site includes useful resources on ICT tools and their use.
Arab Women's Court http://www.arabwomencourt.org/ Aims to raise public awareness of violence against women, to exert pressure on Arab governments and NGOs in order to take measures to protect and support women victims and to aid and support victims.
ATHENA http://www.athenanetwork.org/ (English, French, Spanish) Aims to implement the Barcelona Bill of Rights through a network of activists addressing gender, human rights, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV/AIDS.
BRIDGE http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/ (Arabic, English, French, Spanish Portuguese) Specialised gender and development research and information service that provides searchable database of tools, case studies, policy papers and research.
Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) http://www.cwgl.rutgers.edu/ Develops and facilitates women's leadership through leadership institutes, strategic planning activities, international mobilization campaigns, UN monitoring, global education endeavors, publications, and a resource center.
famafrique http://www.famafrique.org/ (French) Provides a space for sharing information on issues affecting women and development in Francophone Africa.
Feminist Theory Website http://www.cddc.vt.edu/feminism/ (English, French, Spanish) Provides research materials and information for students, activists, and scholars under rubrics: "fields within feminist theory", "different national/ethnic feminisms" and "individual feminists".
Gender Action http://www.genderaction.org Aims to ensure that women and men equally participate in and benefit from International Financial Institution investments in developing countries through advocacy, capacity building of stakeholders, engaging the World Bank, and expanding the networks pressuring the IFIs.
Gender is my Agenda Campaign http://www.genderismyagenda.com/ (English, French) Aims to popularise the AU Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa, seek its implementation and to bring attention to violence against women.
Gender and Women Studies for Africa (GWS Africa) http://www.gwsafrica.org/ Project aims to strengthen teaching and research in gender studies by bringing teachers and researchers based in African universities together in training, research and publishing activities, using online communications and workshops.
Gender, Science and Technology Gateway http://gstgateway.wigsat.org/ Resource for researchers, policy makers, and NGOs. It provides key links and information on research, practice, policy and partners.
iKNOW [English, French, Spanish; requires registration] http://www.iknowpolitics.org/; UNDP, UNIFEM, NDI, IPU, International IDEA. Resource on Women in Politics aimed at elected officials, candidates, political party leaders and members, researchers, students and other practitioners. Includes access to experts, library, discussion forums and tools for exchanging experiences.
International Women's Rights Project (IWRP) http://www.iwrp.org Aims to influence the implementation of international human rights standards, for the benefit of women, through collaborative and participatory research and evidence-based advocacy.
Machreq/Maghreb Gender Linking & Information Project (MACMAG GLIP) (Arabic, English, French) http://www.macmag-glip.org/ Forum for debate, learning and exchange on women, gender and development issues for interested groups in the Middle East and Maghreb region.
NGO Working Group on Women, Peace and Security http://www.womenpeacesecurity.org/ Works for the implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325, aimed at ensuring the equal and full participation of women in issues relating to peace and security to prevent violent conflict and to protect all civilians.
One World Action http://www.oneworldaction.org Uses gender mainstreaming as a strategy for achieving gender equality and equity, provides money, expertise and practical help to organisations self-initiated projects.
Stop Violence against Women http://web.amnesty.org/actforwomen/index-eng (Arabic, English, French, Spanish) Amnesty International campaign; contains Activist toolkit: Making rights a reality http://web.amnesty.org/actforwomen/svaw-toolkit-eng.
Siyanda http://www.siyanda.org/ on-line database to support practitioners by presenting summaries of on-line work, enabling download of full-length materials free and facilitating a culture of sharing information.
Win with Women Initiative http://winwithwomen.ndi.org/, NDI. Promotes women's political participation worldwide through the Global Action Plan: a document that outlines practical recommendations that will help political parties broaden their appeal by becoming more inclusive and representative.
WomenAction 2000 http://www.womenaction.org/ (English, French, Spanish) Network that enables NGOs to actively engage in the Beijing+5 review process for women's empowerment, especially iro women and media.
Women's Human Rights Net http://www.whrnet.org/ (English, French, Spanish) Updates on women's human rights issues and policy developments globally and provides information and analyses that support advocacy actions through regular news, interviews, perspectives, alert and campaign information and web highlights.
Women's Human Rights Resources Programme (WHRR) http://www.law-lib.utoronto.ca/diana/ Collects, organizes and disseminates information on women's human rights law. Includes "Women's Human Rights Resources Database", "Research Guides and Bibliographies" and the "List of Women's Rights Organizations".
Women Living Under Muslim Laws (WLUML) http://www.wluml.org/ (Arabic, English, French) Network aims to strengthen women's individual and collective struggles for equality and their rights through solidarity & alerts, networking & information services, capacity building, publications and media and collective projects.

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Key documents

Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/RES/60/230&Lang=E [PDF document] Adopted by the General Assembly on 18 December 1979 and entered into force on 3 September 1981.
Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get&Open&DS=A/RES/54/4&Lang=E Entered into force on 22 December 2000.
Convention on the Political Rights of Women http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/e2cprw.htm Entered into force July 7, 1954.
UN Resolutions on Gender Equality Online http://www.un.org/womenwatch/ianwge/resolutions/ga_res_by_topic.htm Index of online instruments.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (BDPFA; 1995) http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/e5dplw.htm
Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa http://www.achpr.org/instruments/women-protocol/ Adopted 11 July 2003, entered into force on 25 November 2005
AU Solemn Declaration on Gender Equality in Africa (July 2004) http://www.fasngo.org/assets/files/resources/SDGE.pdf [PDF document] Made by Heads of State and Government.
SADC Protocol on Gender and Development http://www.siyanda.org/newadditions/2008-09-30-3766-SADC_Protocol_on_Gender_and_De.htm (English, French, Portuguese)

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Publications and statistics

Activist toolkit: Making rights a reality http://web.amnesty.org/actforwomen/svaw-toolkit-eng Amnesty International; contains extensive resources for effective campaigning.
African Women's Bibliographic Database http://www.africabib.org/women.html Over 36 000 citations of books and government documents; articles appearing in edited books; periodical and journal articles; Masters theses and PhD dissertations; conference papers; and videocassettes. Can be search globally or by region or country.
Democracy and the Challenge of Change: A Guide to Increasing Women's Political Participation http://www.ndi.org/files/Democracy_and_the_Challenge_of_Change.pdf NDI handbook for democracy practitioners to help them develop and carry out effective programs to bring more women into government and politics.
Enhancing Women's Full Participation in Electoral Processes in Post-Conflict Countries: A Compilation of Selected Resources http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/feature/postconflict/index.htm, OSAGI. Compilation of relevant scholarly papers and literature reviews.
Gender Equity Index 2008 http://www.socialwatch.org/node/9267 (English, Spanish) Measures inequities in different areas of women's and men's everyday lives around the world, ranks 154 countries by measuring women's relative economic activity, education and empowerment.
GenderStats http://genderstats.worldbank.org/ World Bank electronic database of gender statistics and indicators.
Global Database of Quotas for Women http://www.quotaproject.org/ International IDEA and Stockholm University. Includes country case studies with detailed information on quotas by region and country Working Papers from Stockholm University working paper series and a discussion forum.
Implementation of Quotas: African experiences http://www.idea.int/publications/quotas_africa/upload/IDEA_no3.qxd.pdf [PDF document], Ballington, J, International IDEA. Examines women's political representation in African and shows how quotas have increased women's access to power. This report illustrates the different quota types that are being implemented in different political contexts.
Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action http://reliefweb.int/report/world/inclusive-security-sustainable-peace-toolkit-advocacy-and-action, Initiative for Inclusive Security & International Alert. Resource for women peace builders and practitioners to effectively promote peace and security. Outlines the components of peace building from conflict prevention to post-conflict reconstruction and the role that women can play.
Nairobi Declaration on Women's and Girls' Right to a Remedy and Reparation http://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/NAIROBI_DECLARATIONeng.pdf Adopted by women's rights advocates and activists in March 2007.
Women and HIV/AIDS: Barcelona Bill of Rights http://www.aidswomencaucus.org/pdf/Bill_of_Rights_Eng.pdf Adopted by the 14th International AIDS Conference held in Barcelona in 2002.
Women in National Parliaments http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm, Inter-Parliamentary Union. Statistics on women's representation in parliamentary houses.
Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers http://www.idea.int/publications/wip2/upload/WiP_inlay.pdf [PDF document], Revised Edition 2005, International IDEA. Examines obstacles women confront when entering Parliament (political, socio-economic or ideological and psychological), presents solutions to overcome these obstacles, such as changing electoral systems and introducing quotas, and it details strategies for women to influence politics once they are elected to parliament.

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Conflict management

Specialists

African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD) http://www.accord.org.za/. An international civil-society organisation working throughout Africa to bring African solutions to the conflicts in Africa. Includes training courses.
Alliance for International Conflict Prevention and Resolution http://www.aicpr.org/. A non-profit network of private and public organizations aimed at increasing the effectiveness of conflict management. Focuses on areas affected by international and civil armed conflict.
Ashoka's Changemaker http://www.changemakers.net/. Attempts to provide on-the-ground innovations for managing conflict. Provides solutions and resources needed to help individuals become changemakers and explores the principles of successful social innovation. Encourages competition to find solutions and collaboration to refine them.
Association for Conflict Resolution (ACR) http://www.acrnet.org/. An organization of professionals dedicated to enhancing the practice and public understanding of conflict resolution, that includes more than 6 000 mediators, arbitrators, facilitators, educators, and others involved in the field of conflict resolution.
Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management http://www.berghof-conflictresearch.org/en/. Supports and monitors projects and institutions which aim to transform ethnopolitical conflicts, based on the principles of reducing violence and promoting social justice.
CDR Associates http://www.mediate.org/. Aims at transforming difficult conflicts into opportunities for creativity, mutual gain, and positive change. Provides professional mediation, facilitation, consultation, and training services.
Center for Democracy and Election Management (CDEM) http://www.american.edu/ia/cdem/. University level teaching and research programs around the management and conduct of elections throughout the world; cross-regional comparison of democratic institutions; and election-mediation as way of resolving civil conflict.
Center for Reduction of Religious-Based Conflict, http://www.center2000.org/. A non-profit organization that publicizes existing conflicts, their significance, and their causes; as well as attempting to providing realistic long-term solutions.
Conciliation Resources (CR) http://www.c-r.org/. An international NGO that works to prevent violence, promote justice and transform conflict into opportunities for development. Publishes the journal Accord: http://www.c-r.org/accord/series.shtml.
Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy http://www.imtd.org/. Promotes a systems approach to peace-building and to facilitate the transformation of deep-rooted social conflict. Acts as a catalyst, bringing tools of training, consulting, and convening to conflict situations.
International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) http://www.ictj.org/. Assists countries pursuing accountability for past mass atrocity or human rights abuse, where historical injustices or systemic abuse remain unresolved. Builds local capacity by works closely with organizations and experts.
International Crisis Group http://www.crisisweb.org/home/index.cfm (English, French, Arabic). An independent, non-profit, multinational organisation, with over 100 staff members on five continents, working through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy to prevent and resolve deadly conflict.
International Peace Research Association http://soc.kuleuven.be/pol/ipra/. scholarly association that promotes peace research and peace education. Focuses on conferences, promotes interdisciplinary research and publishes the International Journal of Peace Studies (http://www.gmu.edu/academic/ijps/).
Partners for Democratic Change http://www.partnersglobal.org/. {An international organization committed to building sustainable local capacity to advance civil society by promoting democratic participatory change and conflict management worldwide. Site provides detailed reports of the work involved in realizing field projects, such as setting up new local institutions and training individual practitioners for conflict resolution and public policy promotion. The organization operates projects on five continents, with a focus on Eastern, Southeastern, and Central European countries.}
Search for Common Ground http://www.sfcg.org/sfcg/sfcg_mission.html. Mission is to transform the way the conflict is dealt with; away from adversarial approaches, toward cooperative solutions. Includes introductory theoretical material and training resources and bibliographic resource guides.

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Educational projects

Beyond Intractability http://www.beyondintractability.org/. A database of articles, essays, expert interviews and extensive links to web publications aimed at enabling knowledge of conflict and intervention to secure its resolution.
Conflict Prevention Web http://www.caii.com/CAIIStaff/Dashboard_GIROAdminCAIIStaff/Dashboard_ CAIIAdminDatabase/resources/ghai/. Creative Associates Inc/USAID. Intended for policy-makers and practitioners Provides body of knowledge on the origins and life cycle of conflicts, tools for conflict prevention and mitigation, and strategies for applying the tools.
Conflict Research Consortium http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/index_orig.html. This is a multidisciplinary program of research, teaching, and application, focused on finding more constructive ways of addressing difficult, long-term, and intractable conflicts, and getting that information to the people involved in these conflicts.
CRInfo: Conflict Resolution Information Source http://www.crinfo.org/about/index.jsp. Funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, it provides a clearing house for internet information on conflict intervention, resolution and transformation.
Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (ICAR) http://www.gmu.edu/departments/ICAR/, George Mason University. Develops theory, research, and practice that interrupt cycles of violence. Focuses on globalization, religion, change and identity issues in conflict.
International Conflict research (INCORE) http://www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/ Uses research, education and comparative analysis, to addresses the causes and consequences of conflict internationally and promotes conflict resolution.
The Online Journal of Peace and Conflict Resolution http://www.trinstitute.org. A resource for students, teachers and practitioners in fields relating to the reduction and elimination of destructive conflict.
PeaceAfrica http://allafrica.com/peaceafrica/, AllAfrica Foundation. meant to become an interactive Internet platform, linking African organisations working in peace-building, conflict resolution and related fields into an online network.
Training for Change http://www.trainingforchange.org/. Spreads the skills of democratic, nonviolent social change; increasing capacity around the world for activist training.
Transformative Approaches to Conflict http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/transform/. Funded by the Surdna and Hewlett Foundations, the web site contains materials related to the understanding and use of transformative approaches to conflict.

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Handbooks and manuals

Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation http://www.berghof-handbook.net/general_intro.htm. Much more than a handbook. Contains commissioned Articles by leading experts and a Dialogue Series on key issues, in which issues are debated.
Cooperative Problem Solving http://www.itrainonline.org/itrainonline/mmtk/cps.shtml (English, French), ItrainOnline. 15 separate units plus core materials intended for use with all units. This workshop is designed for use with groups who want to understand and practice the cooperative problem-solving model for managing conflict. The process focuses on encouraging mutual agreement and developing positive relationships.
Database on Human Rights Education and Training http://hre.ohchr.org/hret/, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2007. Facilitates access to human rights education and training programmes, materials and institutions worldwide.
Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators http://www.idea.int/publications/democracy_and_deep_rooted_conflict/upload/ddrc_full_en.pdf [PDF documents], Harris, P & Reilly, B (eds.), International IDEA, 1998. Provides negotiators and policy-makers with detailed information on options for building democracy in post-conflict societies.
Democracy, Conflict and Human Security: Pursuing Peace in the 21st Century, Vol I http://www.idea.int/publications/dchs/dchs_vol1.cfm [PDF documents], Large, J & Sisk, TD (eds), International IDEA, 2006. Looks at delivery of social and economic rights, inclusive decision making and poverty reduction. Focused on how democratic practice can help manage conflicts and promote security and development.
Designing Transformation and Intervention Processes http://www.berghof-handbook.net/articles/paffenholz_handbook.pdf [PDF document], Paffenholz, T, Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management. Focuses on conditions for intervention. Discusses vision, goals and commitment; analytic method; strategies and roles; partners and entry points; timing interventions; processes and structuring; staffing; coordination and cooperation; sustainability and learning.
Electoral Justice: The International IDEA Handbook http://www.idea.int/publications/electoral_justice/index.html, International IDEA, 2011, pp 246. Handbook for academics and electoral officers within administrative and judicial institutions of all that encompasses electoral dispute resolution, ranging from prevention to resolution.
The Guide on Factors of Election-related Violence Internal ( (Sead Alihodžić) and External (Sead Alihodžić & Catalina Uribe Burche) to Electoral processes, International IDEA, 2013. The Guides on Internal and External Factors are support documents to International IDEA's Electoral Risk Management Tool.
Inclusive Security, Sustainable Peace: A Toolkit for Advocacy and Action http://www.womenwagingpeace.net/toolkit.asp, Initiative for Inclusive Security & International Alert. Resource for women peace builders and practitioners to effectively promote peace and security. Outlines the components of peace building from conflict prevention to post-conflict reconstruction and the role that women can play.
Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: A handbook (English/French) http://www.idea.int/publications/reconciliation/index.cfm Bloomfield, D, Barnes, T & Huyse, L, International IDEA, 2003, pp 176. Discusses reconciliation as a goal and a process; provides various tools employable in the design and implementation of reconciliation process. Uses case studies to illustrate principles, processes and instruments of reconciliation. Concludes with a discussion of the role of international community.

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Human Rights education

Organisations

Amnesty International http://www.amnesty.org/ Campaigns for internationally recognized human rights. AI's vision is of a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards.
ARTICLE 19 http://www.article19.org/. a human rights organisation with a specific mandate and focus on the defence and promotion of freedom of expression and freedom of information worldwide, with Africa as one of five regions operational.
Bayefsky.com http://bayefsky.com/. Provides access to a comprehensive range of data concerning the application of the UN human rights treaty system by its treaty monitoring bodies since their inauguration in the 1970's.
Carter Center http://www.cartercenter.org/. Organisation founded by former US president Jimmy Carter. It is committed to advancing human rights and alleviating unnecessary human suffering, especially in the Third World. Advances democracy as way of defusing conflict and facilitating human development.
Centre for Democracy and Development www.cddwestafrica.org/. A non-governmental organisation which aims to promote the values of democracy, peace and human rights in Africa and especially in the West African sub-region.
CIVICUS: World Alliance for Citizen Participation http://www.civicus.org/. CIVICUS is an international alliance of civil organisations dedicated to strengthening citizen action and civil society throughout the world through a wide variety of programmes.
Digital Freedom Network http://www.dfn.org/. Seeks to eliminate human rights violations through the implementation of the principles of freedom; property rights, free markets, rule of law, and legitimate democracy. Uses foundational texts and reports on events to explain and promote the principles of freedom.
European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) http://europa.eu.int/comm/europeaid/projects/eidhr/index_en.htm, European Commission. Funds activities that promote human rights, democracy and the rule of law, primarily channelled via governments, mainly targeted at tackling the roots of poverty.
Global Directory of Human Rights Educators http://www.hrea.org/erc/Databases/educators.php. Directory of over 750 trainers and curriculum developers from over 80 countries. Password protected to protect their privacy and requires registration.
Global Witness http://www.globalwitness.org/ Global Witness campaigns to achieve real change by challenging established thinking on seemingly intractable global issues. They work to highlight the link between the exploitation of natural resources and human rights abuses, particularly where resources such as timber, diamonds and oil are used to fund and perpetuate conflict and corruption.
Human Rights Watch http://www.hrw.org (English, Arabic, French, Portuguese). Defends individuals and organizations against human rights abuses by investigating and exposing them and holding abusers accountable. Challenges power-holders to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.
Human Rights Education Associates (HREA) http://hrea.org/ (English, French, Arabic). An international NGO that supports human rights learning; the training of activists and professionals; the development of educational materials and programming; and community-building through on-line technologies.
Internews http://www.internews.org. Works to improve access to quality information for people around the world by fostering independent media and promoting open communications policies in the public interest.
International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development http://www.ichrdd.ca/site/ (English, French). A non-partisan organization to promote the human and democratic rights. Currently focus on democratic development, women's rights, globalization and human rights, and the rights of indigenous peoples.
International Center for Transitional Justice http://www.ictj.org/ (English, French). Assists countries pursuing accountability for past mass atrocity or human rights abuse. Provides information, legal and policy analysis, documentation, and strategic research to justice/truth-seeking institutions, NGOs and governments.
International Council on Human Rights Policy http://www.ichrp.org/. Conducts applied policy research on issues that face organisations working in the field of human rights; approach is international, multidisciplinary and consultative. Aim is to produce work of practical relevance.
International Federation for Human Rights Leagues http://www.fidh.org (English, Arabic, French). Aims at the protection of victims, the prevention of violations and the sanction of perpetrators. Priorities are assisting victims, mobilising the community of States, supporting local NGO's capacity and raising awareness
International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX) http://www.ifex.org/ (English, French). IFEX monitors attacks on journalists and others who report on corruption, as well as initiatives to improve transparency, access to information and open government by coordinating the effort of member organisations.
Media Institute of Southern Africa http://www.misa.org/. An NGO that focuses on promoting free, independent and pluralistic media. Promotes the free flow of information and co-operation between media workers. Role is one of a coordinator, facilitator and communicator.
Office of Democracy and Governance Program http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/democracy_and_governance/, US AID. Promotes democracy and good governance through strengthening the Rule of Law and Respect for Human Rights, promoting genuine and competitive elections, development of civil society and transparent and accountable governance.
Open Society Institute http://www.soros.org/. A private operating and grant making foundation, aims to shape public policy to promote democratic governance, human rights, and economic, legal, and social reform. Implements initiatives to support the rule of law, education, public health, and independent media.
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights http://www.ohchr.org/english/. Goals are preventing human rights violations, securing respect for all human rights, promoting international cooperation to protect human rights. Website has a comprehensive database of international law and texts on the promotion of democracy.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home. Leads and co-ordinates international action to protect refugees and resolve refugee problems worldwide; safeguards the rights and well-being of refugees. Strives to ensure that everyone can find safe refuge.

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Handbooks and Manuals

Evaluation in the Human Rights Education Field: Getting Started http://hrea.org/pubs/EvaluationGuide/, Tibbitts, F, HREA, 1997, pp 24. Technical guide for evaluation in the field of human rights education and training. Presents different methods and data collection techniques for human rights education programmes, classroom-based, teacher training and text field assessments.
Human Rights Education Resource Book http://hrea.org/pubs/HREresourcebook/2nd/ Elbers, F, HREA, 2000. A resource guide for human rights educators. Includes a listing of human rights organisations, training programmes, funders; annotated bibliography; Internet resources.
Manual on Human Rights Monitoring: An Introduction for Human Rights Field Officers http://www.jus.uio.no/smr/english/about/programmes/nordem/publications/manual/ (second edition), Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, 2002. Primer for workers in the field of Human Rights monitoring.
Popular Education for Human Rights: : 24 Participatory Exercises for Facilitators and Teachers http://hrea.org/pubs/Popular_Education/PopEd.html, Claude, RP & Ridgway, E, HREA, 2000. A trainer's guide for human rights activists designed for non-formal education for participants with minimal literacy skills.
Human rights for human dignity: A primer on economic, social and cultural rights http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/POL34/009/2005, Amnesty International 2005. The primer presents an overview of economic, social and cultural rights, outlines their scope and content, and gives examples of violations and what can be done to address them.

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Curriculum development

Adapting Lessons for Different Learners http://www.hrea.org/erc/Library/methodology/adapting_lessons_handout.html. Tibbitts, F & Keen, E, HREA. Two-page handout with practical guidelines on how to adapt a text or learning material for different countries, language groups, and target audiences.
Annotated Primer for Selecting Democratic and Human Rights Education Teaching Materials http://hrea.org/pubs/Primer/index.html Tibbitts, F, HREA, 1997. This primer contains samples from ten exemplary human rights education materials. These are intended to give the reader a flavour for the particular text resource, as well as for the field more generally. Organised by target age group.
Database on Human Rights Education and Training http://hre.ohchr.org/hret/, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2007. Facilitates access to human rights education and training programmes, materials and institutions worldwide.
Emerging Models for Human Rights Education http://www.hrea.org/index.php?doc_id=558, Tibbitts, F, Issues of Democracy, 2002. The effectiveness of human rights education is discussed and three operating models for human rights education are presented and analysed according to their target groups, goals for learners and intended contribution to social change.
Guidelines for National Plans of Action for Human Rights Education http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/e06a5300f90fa0238025668700518ca4/ de5002e16faf1df980256678005ceaa8/$FILE/N9728411.pdf [PDF document] (English, French, Portuguese). UN Centre for Human Rights 1997. Objectives are the assessment of needs and formulation of strategies; building and strengthening programmes; developing educational materials and using the mass media.
Human Rights Educational Goals for Children and Youth http://www.hrea.org/erc/Library/educational_goals.html Tibbitts, F, HREA, 1996. Chart with educational goals for human rights education for children of different levels/grades.
Planning for the Future: Human Rights in Schools http://www.hrea.org/pubs/IHF.html, Tibbitts, F IN Handbook for Helsinki Committees, International Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights, 1995. Concentrates on curriculum development and policy, text development, and teacher training.
Study Guides http://hrea.org/learn/guides/ HREA. Offer introductions to various human rights topics. Present definitions, key rights at stake, human rights instruments, and protection and assistance agencies. Include links to the full text of international treaties and other useful resources.
Tips for the Classroom http://www.hrea.org/pubs/tips.html, Tibbitts, F, HREA, 1996. Practical exercises that can be used in teacher trainings. Includes tips for leading discussions, establishing rules for discussion, working in pairs and small groups, developing a lesson and lesson evaluation.

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Local government

Organisations

Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy http://www.closup.umich.edu/. Integrates research, teaching, and outreach to foster understanding of the problems facing states, cities, and metropolitan areas.
Commonwealth Local Government Forum http://www.clgf.org.uk/. CLGF promotes and strengthens democratic local government, encourages best practice - through conferences and events, its Good Practice Scheme, research and information on innovation, and working with Commonwealth countries.
Local Authorities Research and Intelligence Association (LARIA) http://www.laria.gov.uk/ Promotes the role and practice of research within the field of local government and provide a supportive network for those conducting or commissioning research. Organises conferences and workshop and produces publications.
Municipal Development Partnership for Eastern and Southern Africa http://www.mdpafrica.org.zw/ Enables effective self-governance at local level in Sub-Saharan Africa by promoting alternative development approaches to problems and issuesand by placing emphasis on ownership and participation of stakeholders.
World Bank Urban Development http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTURBANDEVELOPMENT/ 0,,menuPK:337184~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:337178,00.html. Focuses on liveability, competitiveness, good governance and management, and bankability.

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Projects

Best Practices http://www.bestpractices.org/ (English, French), UN - HABITAT. Searchable database of proven solutions to common social, economic and environmental problems of urbanization useful for analyzing trends, networking, capacity-building, technical cooperation and policy development.
Cities Without Slums Action Plan http://www.citiesalliance.org/cws-action-plan, Cities Alliance. Initiative with specific actions and concrete targets to improve the living conditions of the world's most vulnerable and marginalised urban residents.
Global Urban Observatory http://www.unchs.org/programmes/guo/, UN-HABITAT. Aims to improve the base of urban knowledge by helping Governments, local authorities and organizations of the civil society develop and apply policy-oriented urban indicators, statistics and other urban information.
Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies, Erasmus University. http://www.ihs.nl/ Offers specialized post graduate education, training, advisory services and applied research in the fields of urban management, housing and urban environment to develop capacities to reduce poverty.
Integrated Development Planning for Local Government http://www.etu.org.za/toolbox/docs/localgov/webidp.html, Education and Training Unit. Gives an overview of Integrated Development Planning that gives an overall framework for development that involves the entire municipality and its citizens in finding the best solutions.
Urban Management Programme http://www.unhabitat.org/categories.asp?catid=374, UN - HABITAT & UNDP. Promotes innovative urban management practices, establish and strengthen municipal networks, and influence local and national urban policies and programmes.
Urban and Local Government Management Program http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/WBI/WBIPROGRAMS/CMUDLP/ 0,,menuPK:461794~pagePK:64156143~piPK:64154155~theSitePK:461754,00.html, World Bank. Targets managers, policymakers, planners and training institutes to advance knowledge and understanding and provide the tools they need.
Urban Development Programme http://portal.unesco.org/shs/en/ev.php-URL_ID=5606&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html, UNESCO. Aim is to propagate urban public policies which respect, protect and promote inclusiveness, social cohesion and the concept 'right to the city'.
UN Settlement Programme, UN - HABITAT. http://www.unchs.org/. Promotes socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with adequate shelter for all by focusing on knowledge management, the financing of housing and human settlements and, particularly, to strategic partnerships.

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Publications

Civic Education and Local Government: A Literature Review http://ia201114.eu.archive.org/tna/20060605094311/http://www.odpm.gov.uk/embedded_object.asp?id=1137167 [PDF document], 2005, Cardiff University, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (UK). Covers theoretical and policy context, state support, education in secondary schools, empirical evidence and future prospects and key messages.
Decentralization and Democratic Local Governance Programming Handbook http://capacity4dev.ec.europa.eu/system/files/file/19/07/2011_-_0957/8-usaid_decentralisation_programming_handbook.pdf, US AID, 2000. Provides a conceptual framework, guidance for choosing successful strategies, program design and implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
Funding of Political Parties and Election Campaigns http://www.idea.int/publications/funding_parties/upload/full.pdf [PDF document], Austin, R & Tjernstrëm, M (eds), International IDEA, 2003, pp 262. Provides an overview of major issues debated and problems encountered. It incorporates sections on current practice in various regions. Chapters on enforcement of regulations governing party finances and strategies for gender equality.
Impact of Decentralization and Privatization on Municipal Services http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/jmms01/jmmsr.pdf [PDF document], International Labour Organization, 2001. Examines the impact on employment and working conditions and on quality and efficiency of delivery.
Online Sourcebook on Decentralisation and Local Government http://www.ciesin.org/decentralization/(English, French), Center for International Earth Science Information Network. Contains an overview of decentralisation, issues in program design, case studies and tools for practitioners.
Toolkit Citizen Participation http://www.toolkitparticipation.nl/. A database that contributes towards a positive attitude by local authorities to citizen participation by presenting the advantages of a participatory approach and coaching local authorities and citizen groups in developing such an approach.

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Great resources

Administration and Cost of Elections Project

EISA works with eight other organisations to build the ACE Electoral Knowledge Network.

AfDevInfo

African Development Information services is a one-stop shop for information on all aspects of development in Africa.

directory of development organizations - Africa

directory of development organizations - Africa, 2006 (English, French, Spanish). Can be downloaded by continent or by country.

HuriSearch

Human Rights Search Engine - searchs over 3000 human rights websites

Polity.org.za

Polity.org.za Policy, law, economics and politics - deepening democracy through access to information.