Electoral management bodies: Legal basis and support

Updated October 2014

Country Summary data
ANGOLA National Electoral Commission (Comissão Nacional Eleitoral; CNE)
Established by Law 7/2004 of 17 June (Electoral Law)
Supported by Provincial Commissions and Municipal Offices.
BOTSWANA Independent Electoral Commission (IEC)
Established by Constitution of Botswana 1966, Articles 65A, 66
IEC Secretary heads a secretariat, relies on government resources and civil servants
DRC Independent Electoral Commission (Commission Electorale Indépendante; CEI); not yet constituted
Established by Constitution of 2005, Article 21; governing organic law yet to be passed
LESOTHO Independent Electoral Commission (IEC)
Established by the Constitution of Lesotho 1993, Articles 66-66D; governed by National Assembly Election Order 1992, 4
Director of Elections provides secretariat support, relies on civil servants for electoral operations
MADAGASCAR National Independent Elelectoral Commission (CENI, Commission Electorale Nationale Indépendant) responsible for execution and supervision of electoral operations, High Constitutional Court (HCC, Haute Cour Constitutionnelle) vets and publishes National Assembly and presidential candidates, processes complaints for parliamentary and presidential elections and referenda, verifies and announces official results
CENI established by Ordonnance no 2010-003 du 17 mars 2010 portant loi organique relative au Code électoral, Articles 127-129; HCC established by Constitution 1992, Articles 110-116
CENI supported by secretariat headed by Executive Secretary and regional, district and commune commissions
MALAWI Malawi Electoral Commission (MEC)
Established in terms of Constitution of Malawi 1994, Articles 75, 76; governed by Electoral Commission Act 1998
Secretariat headed by Chief Elections Officer
MAURITIUS Electoral Supervisory Commission (ESC) supervises Electoral Commissioner
Established by the Constitution of Mauritius 1968, Article 38
Electoral Commissioner conducts elections
MOZAMBIQUE National Electoral Commission (Comissão Nacional de Eleições; CNE)
Established by Law 6/2013
Supported by Technical Secretariat for the Administration of Elections (Secretariado Técnico de Administração Eleitoral; STAE)
NAMIBIA Electoral Commission of Namibia (ECN)
Established by Electoral Act 24 of 1992
Supported by Directorate of Elections headed by Director of Elections; uses civil servants to conduct elections
SEYCHELLES Electoral Commission of Seychelles
Established by the Constitution of Seychelles 1993 (Sixth Ammendment)
Assisted by Chief Registration Officer and a Chief Electoral Officer
SOUTH AFRICA Independent Electoral Commission (IEC)
Established by Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 1996, Articles 190-191; regulated by Electoral Commission Act 51 1996
Assisted by Chief Electoral Officer
SWAZILAND Elections and Boundaries Commission (EBC)
Established by Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland 2005, Article 90
TANZANIA National Election Commission (NEC)
Established by Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania 1977, Article 74; governed by Elections Act 1 1985
Supported by Director of Elections and the Secretariat
ZAMBIA Electoral Commission of Zambia (ECZ)
Established by Constitution of Zambia 1996, Article 76; governed by Electoral Commission Act 1996
Assisted by Directorate
ZANZIBAR Zanzibar Electoral Commission (ZEC)
Established by the Constitution of Zanzibar 1984, Article 119; governed by Election Act 1984
Assisted by Director of Elections
ZIMBABWE Zimbabwe Electoral Commission (ZEC)
Established by Constitution of Zimbabwe 1980, Article 61; governed by Zimbabwe Electoral Commission Act 2005
Assisted by Registrar General Office and Elections Directorate

See also: MATLOSA, K 2006 Election Management and Observation in Southern Africa: A Comparative Review of Existing Norms, Principles and Guidelines for Democratic Elections, EISA Occassional Paper No 40.